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“The Voting Behavior in United Nations Institutions towards the Palestinian Cause between 2005-2021”

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Date:5 may 2022

 

“The Voting Behavior in United Nations Institutions towards the Palestinian Cause between 2005-2021”

 

By/ Lawyer Dr. Salah Abdal-Aty

 

 

 

Introduction:

The United Nations and its institutions have played and still an important role in the Palestinian cause, and in this context, the United Nations issued a number of important resolutions in favor of Palestine, whether issued by the General Assembly or the UN Security Council, which stipulate the right to self-determination, the protection of the rights of refugees, the state and the rest of the Palestinian national rights, and criminalize the occupation’s violations. Despite the importance of those resolutions, the occupation state refrained from implementing them. On the other hand, the international community still unable to hold it accountable for its crimes against the Palestinian people, and fails to implement decisions related to the Arab-Israeli conflict.

Heading to the United Nations represents a Palestinian right and entitlement that contributes ending the Israeli occupation, which won’t happen without challenges, headed by an Israeli rejection and the American veto. For this reason and others, the diplomatic workforce must be based on the illegality of the Israeli occupation or the protection of the authority rather than the protection of the rights of the Palestinian people, and on the relevant United Nations resolutions that emphasize the illegality of aggression, settlement, siege and land seizure through war. In addition to activating the “United for Peace” to ensure the protection of civilians within the framework of exercising the right to self-determination, especially in light of the increasing effectiveness of international solidarity campaigns with the Palestinian cause.

This does not mean that we will wake up the next day to find an international system that has been established to protect civilians in the occupied Palestinian territories, but it is another station and course of the political, diplomatic and legal struggle work in the context of the national struggle to end the occupation, in addition to the right of the Palestinians to exercise all forms of resistance guaranteed under international covenants.

Everyone is aware that the Palestinian demand to impose and enforce United Nations resolutions related to the Palestinian cause collides with multiple obstacles, including the Israeli rejection and the American veto in the Security Council, which complicates the possibility of its actual implementation. Nevertheless, the facts confirm the importance of the diplomatic and human rights struggle in the United Nations as part of the diplomatic battle.

Many regional, international and even Palestinian political variables and the change in the balance of power and the international political map, have played a role in influencing the Palestinian cause and the voting behavior of states in the United Nations regarding the Palestinian cause and rights. Therefore, and in view of the lack of studies on voting behavior at the United Nations, this study on the voting behavior of states in light of regional and international changes, analyzes and provides ways to remedy the decrease in the number of votes in support of the rights of the Palestinians.

First: Study environment:

The United Nations affirms that the Palestinian people live under occupation, and that the Palestinians live in a state of frustration and lack of political solutions, however, these assertions lack a vision for a political solution to progress towards enabling the Palestinians to obtain their rights.

Despite the importance of this, the correction in favor of issues that concern the Palestinian people in the face of the occupation has witnessed a noticeable decline in the volume of international and European interaction with it in light of the rush of many Arab countries to normalize with the occupation, where resolutions related to Palestine received the support of about 136 votes years ago, while at the present time it hardly receives no more than support 99 votes[1].

The internal Palestinian factor and the decline in the ability of the Palestinian political system to deal with the challenges facing the Palestinian cause also played a role in the decline in the voting behavior of many states in the United Nations and its institutions regarding the Palestinian cause.

Second: Study importance:

The importance of this study stems from the widening challenges and acceleration of conspiracies targeting the Palestinian cause and rights, especially during the “ Trump” term, were he recognized occupied and united Jerusalem as the capital of the occupation, he froze his country’s funding to UNRWA, increased in the number of Arab countries normalizing with the occupation, in addition to neglecting the Palestinian file at the expense of the conflict with China, Russia and the rest of the files.

The importance of the study also lies in light of the weakness of the official Palestinian influence tools in utilizing the spaces that Palestine occupies in the international community.

Third: Study objectives:

The study aspires to achieve the following objectives:

  1. A deeper understanding of the voting process in United Nations institutions.
  2. Monitoring the most prominent decisions submitted regarding the Palestinian cause during the study period.
  3. Determining the changes in the voting behavior of states during the study period.
  4. Identifying and analyzing the causes and contexts of change in the voting behavior of states during the study period.
  5. Presenting possible scenarios to the decision-maker that would restore the balance of correction in favor of the Palestinian cause, thus enhancing the status of the Palestinian cause in the international community.

Fourth: Key issue:

This research attempts to answer the following main question: To what extent have international, regional and Palestinian conditions played a role in influencing voting behavior in favor of the rights of the Palestinian people?

This question includes a number of the following sub-questions:

  1. What are the most prominent decisions submitted regarding the Palestinian cause between 2005/2021?
  2. What are the changes in the voting behavior of states during the study period?
  3. What are the reasons behind the change in the voting behavior of states during the study period?
  4. How to influence states to regain their vote in favor of the Palestinian cause?

Fifth: Study methodology:

The study relies on the descriptive analytical approach in terms of reviewing the voting behavior in the United Nations with regard to the Palestinian cause, analyzing this behavior to find out its details, the reasons behind the decline in the voting process, and measuring its repercussions on the Palestinian cause and rights.

Sixth: Study delimitations: During the time period from 2005 to 2021.

Seventh: Study Axes: The first axis: the most prominent decisions issued by the United Nations institutions regarding the Palestinian cause, and monitoring the change in international attitudes towards decisions during the study period. The second axis: analysis of the change in the voting behavior of states and its causes, especially those that supported the Palestinian cause in earlier stages.

 

The first axis

United Nations resolutions on the Palestinian cause.

The change in raising Palestinian issues and the international voting track.

  1. General Assembly:

Although the General Assembly embodies the broadest and legitimate representation of states, it lacks any serious powers to take binding decisions, and its role is limited to providing non-binding recommendations to the Security Council[2].

The repeated uses of veto led to the General Assembly to issue recommendations on outstanding issues and to establish committees and mechanisms working to activate the collective security system, based on Resolution 377 “Uniting for Peace” issued in 1950[3].

The Korean War gave a new dimension to this issue, as it called on the General Assembly to convene in an emergency session in order to save peace based on the decision of “Uniting for Peace” by taking the role of the Assembly in place of the Council, where the General Assembly approved by a two-thirds majority of the United Nations forces to cross the 38° line dividing the North and South Korea, and later, to override the Soviet Union’s repeated veto, South Korea was granted permanent membership in the United Nations.[4]

We believe that the mechanism “Uniting for Peace” may be one of the important options for the Palestinian people that must be tested, in light of the widespread support for the justice and rights of the Palestinian people in the General Assembly, it also constitutes a bypassing the obstacle of the American veto, which require concerting Arab and Palestinian diplomatic efforts to persuade members of the General Assembly to support Palestinian demands and to impose sanctions on Israel.[5]

The research shows a set of resolutions related to the Palestinian cause issued by the General Assembly as follows:

  1. Resolutions of the General Assembly relating to the Palestinian cause:
  2. The most prominent permanent resolutions of the General Assembly related to the Palestinian cause between 2005 to 2010:
permanent resolutions 2005 2006 2007 2008 2009 2010
In favor against abstained In favor against abstained In favor against abstained In favor against abstained In favor against abstained In favor against abstained
Committee on the Exercise of the Inalienable Rights of the Palestinian People 106 8 59 107 7 62 109 8 55 107 8 57 109 8 55 112 9 54
Report of the Special Committee to Investigate Israeli Practices Affecting the Human Rights of the Palestinian People and Other Arabs of the Occupied Territories 86 10 74 90 9 81 93 8 74 94 8 73 92 9 74 94 9 72
Applicability of the Geneva Convention relative to the Protection of Civilian Persons in Time of War of 12 August 1949 to the Occupied Palestinian Territory, including East Jerusalem, and to other occupied Arab territories 158 6 7 165 7 10 169 6 3 173 6 1 168 6 4 169 6 2
Israeli settlements in the Occupied Palestinian Territory, including Jerusalem, and in the occupied Syrian Golan 153 7 10 162 8 10 165 7 5 171 6 2 167 7 3 169 6 3
The right of the Palestinian people to self-determination 170 5 1 176 5 5 176 5 4 173 5 7
Quds 153 7 12 157 6 10 160 6 7 163 6 6 163 7 5 166 6 4
Relief and Works for Palestinian Refugees 161 1 11 no vote 170 6 3 172 6 1 167 6 4 169 6 2

 

It is clear from the above table; that during the time period between 2005 to 2010 that the General Assembly of the United Nations has kept on raising permanent issues related to the right of the Palestinian people to self-determination; Jerusalem, Palestinian refugees and Israeli practices. These decisions received an average vote of 160 from member states; This voting block did not differ much from the previous years for the time period referred to above despite the increase in the number of member states, which required an increase and a rise in the global support for the rights of the Palestinian people.

 

 

  1. General Assembly resolutions related to the Palestinian cause between 2011 – 2015:
permanent resolutions 2011 2012 2013 2014 2015
In favor against abstained In favor against abstained In favor against abstained In favor against abstained In favor against abstained
Committee on the Exercise of the Inalienable Rights of the Palestinian People 114 9 54 107 7 56 110 7 56 93 7 56 100 9 55
Report of the Special Committee to Investigate Israeli Practices Affecting the Human Rights of the Palestinian People and Other Arabs of the Occupied Territories 86 9 75 98 8 72 95 8 75 88 9 79 92 9 75
Applicability of the Geneva Convention relative to the Protection of Civilian Persons in Time of War of 12 August 1949 to the Occupied Palestinian Territory, including East Jerusalem, and to other occupied Arab territories 162 7 4 171 6 3 196 6 7 no vote 163 6 8
Israeli settlements in the Occupied Palestinian Territory, including Jerusalem, and in the occupied Syrian Golan 164 7 2 169 5 6 167 6 9 159 7 12 161 7 8
The right of the Palestinian people to self-determination 182 7 3 197 7 3 no vote no vote no vote
Quds no vote 162 7 6 162 6 8 144 6 10 153 7 8
Relief and Works for Palestinian Refugees 165 7 2 172 6 1 170 6 6 166 6 6 169 6 5

It is clear that the General Assembly has kept on raising the permanent issues related to the right of the Palestinian people to self-determination; Jerusalem, Palestinian refugees and Israeli practices, despite the Israeli attempts that succeeded in some years to change the permanent schedule of meetings of the United Nations General Assembly by deleting some issues and draft, and which confirms this conviction is that the decisions received an average vote of 130 member states. This means that the voting mass is less than the previous years for the time period referred to above.

permanent resolutions 2016 2017 2018 2019 2020
In favor against abstained In favor against abstained In favor against abstained In favor against abstained In favor against abstained
Committee on the Exercise of the Inalienable Rights of the Palestinian People 100 9 55 103 10 57 100 12 62 92 13 61 92 13 61
Report of the Special Committee to Investigate Israeli Practices Affecting the Human Rights of the Palestinian People and Other Arabs of the Occupied Territories 91 11 73 83 10 77 84 10 78 81 13 80 83 14 76
Applicability of the Geneva Convention relative to the Protection of Civilian Persons in Time of War of 12 August 1949 to the Occupied Palestinian Territory, including East Jerusalem, and to other occupied Arab territories 168 6 6 157 7 10 158 6 14 No vote No vote
Israeli settlements in the Occupied Palestinian Territory, including Jerusalem, and in the occupied Syrian Golan 165 6 7 155 7 12 154 6 15 157 7 15 76 14 83
The right of the Palestinian people to self-determination 177 7 4 No vote 172 6 11 167 5 11 168 5 10
Quds 149 7 8 151 6 9 148 11 14 No vote No vote
Relief and Works for Palestinian Refugees No vote 162 6 7 159 5 12 167 6 7 169 4 9

iii.      Permanent resolutions of the General Assembly related to the Palestinian cause between 2016 to 2020:

 

It is clear from the above table that during the time period from 2016 to 2020, the voting behavior on United Nations General Assembly resolutions has witnessed a noticeable decrease in the voting behavior in favor of issues related to Palestinian affairs and rights; On the other hand, the number of states (abstaining from voting) increased, which indicates the decline of Palestinian diplomacy and its failure to maintain stability. This voting behavior was accompanied by an increase in the scope of Arab normalization on the one hand, and an increase in African diplomatic relations with the Zionist entity, and countries that have traditional attitudes toward the Palestinian cause are often satisfied with the role of negative neutral.

 

 

Second: The most prominent resolutions of the Security Council related to the Palestinian cause between 2005 to 2016:

 

  1. The most prominent resolutions of the Security Council related to the Palestinian cause between 2005 to 2016:

 

Resolution Date In favor Against abstained
Emphasizing the vision of the Security Council of a region in which two democratic states (Israel and Palestine) live side by side, within secure and recognized borders, and welcomes the statement issued by the International Quartet on 9/11/2008 and the Palestinian-Israeli understanding at the Annapolis Conference, and the “Road Map”, and refers to the importance of the “Arab Peace Initiative” for the year 2002. 2008 14 1 0
Calls for an immediate and lasting cease-fire in Gaza, the withdrawal of the Israeli army, and the provision of humanitarian aid to the residents of the Gaza Strip. 2009 14 0 1
Condemns the construction and expansion of settlements, land confiscation, house demolitions and the displacement of Palestinian civilians in the Palestinian territory occupied since 1967, including East Jerusalem 2016 14 0 1

Over the time period from 2005 to 2020, Palestinian diplomacy did not succeed in overriding the American veto to many of the resolutions presented to the Security Council related to Palestinian rights and affairs. Although the administration of Barack Obama tried to perform behavior other than veto, it used a new tactic in the council, by obstructing the access of any project for public discussion in the Council, or what is technically known as (procedural veto); This was reinforced by the fierce behavior of the administration of Trump, to which he added public threats to countries to prevent them from voting in favor of Palestine.

 

 

Third: Resolutions of the Human Rights Council related to the Palestinian cause:

  1. Human Rights Council:
  2. The most prominent resolutions of the Human Rights Council related to the Palestinian cause between 2005 to 2010:

 

Resolutions 2006 2007 2008 2009 2010
In favor against abstained In favor against abstained In favor against abstained In favor against abstained In favor against abstained
Israeli settlements in the Occupied Palestinian Territory, including East Jerusalem, and in the occupied Syrian Golan. 45 1 1 Not listed 46 1 0 46 1 0 46 1 0
The human rights situation in the Occupied Palestinian Territory, including East Jerusalem. 34 1 1 No vote

 

No vote

 

25 6 11 29 6 11
The right of the Palestinian people to self-determination. Not listed Not listed No vote

 

No vote

 

45 1 0

 

At this stage, the Palestinian diplomacy succeeded in a limited way by moving the International Human Rights Council to raise and vote effectively on issues of Israeli violations and the rights of the Palestinian people. In a way that ensured the Council continuation to condemn Israeli policies and procedures, and perhaps the most dangerous thing that could be recorded during this period was the contribution of Palestinian diplomacy to the postponement of the vote on Judge Goldstone’s report on the Israeli aggression on the Gaza Strip in 2008-2009. Despite the approval of the report later, but this behavior shocked the countries of the world that support the Palestinian cause and all the free people and human rights activists in Palestine and the world.

 

Resolutions 2011 2012 2013 2014 2015
In favor against abstained In favor against abstained In favor against abstained In favor against abstain In favor ضد ممتنع
Israeli settlements in the Occupied Palestinian Territory, including East Jerusalem, and in the occupied Syrian Golan. 45 1 0 36 1 10 44 1 2 46 1 0 45 1 1
The human rights situation in the Occupied Palestinian Territory, including East Jerusalem. 30 1 15 46 1 0 46 1 0 46 1 0 43 1 3
The right of the Palestinian people to self-determination. 45 1 0 46 1 0 46 1 0 46 1 0 45 1 1
  1. The most prominent resolutions of the Human Rights Council related to the Palestinian cause between 2011 to 2015:

 

The previous and other decisions coincided with the launch of the State 194 project as a basic project for Palestinian diplomacy and with an escalation of Israeli violations in the occupied Palestinian territories. With the Palestinian accession to a number of basic human rights treaties, the pace at which resolutions related to the Palestinian cause and Palestinian rights are put to the council’s table has become more important, where the resolutions received a significant voter turnout, but this did not prevent some states (such as the United States of America and Canada) from voting against these resolutions, which included the formation of international fact-finding committees on the Israeli-Palestinian conflict, although there was a pattern of a rise in the number of abstaining states due to the composition of the elected council, the Palestinian and Arab performance, and the nature of consultations on decisions.

 

  • The most prominent resolutions of the Human Rights Council related to the Palestinian cause between 2016 to 2020:
Prominent resolutions 2016 2017 2018 2019 2020
In favor against abstained In favor against abstained In favor against abstained In favor against abstained In favor against abstained
Israeli settlements in the Occupied Palestinian Territory, including East Jerusalem, and in the occupied Syrian Golan. 32 0 15 36 2 9 34 4 8 32 5 10 36 2 9
The human rights situation in the Occupied Palestinian Territory, including East Jerusalem. 42 0 5 41 2 4 41 3 2 39 3 5 42 2 3
The right of the Palestinian people to self-determination. No vote 42 2 2 43 2 1 41 3 2 43 2 2

 

The study period witnessed the continuation of the Palestinian focus on bringing Palestinian issues to the table of the Palestinian Human Rights Council, especially war crimes, crimes against humanity and violations of the Israeli occupation, which are escalating in light of the transition of the United States from the level of bias to the level of partnership, and despite all the pressure exerted by the occupation state and the United States, but the Human Rights Council continued to condemn and criminalize the Israeli occupation, which led to American and Israeli resentment reaching the point of accusing the Council of non-neutrality and anti-Semitism; However, the period from 2016 to 2020 compared to the previous period and despite the formation of a commission to investigate the crimes of the occupation against the peaceful demonstrators in the Great Return March and the Council’s issuance of a number of important decisions in favor of Palestine, the voting behavior in favor of decisions related to the Palestinian cause decreased. This indicates a decline in the success of Palestinian diplomacy.

 

 

second axis

Monitoring the change in international attitudes towards decisions during the study period:

Although the majority of the votes of members in the various United Nations institutions were in favor of supporting the steadfastness of the Palestinian people, some resolutions were voted on in a negative way, in other words, the number of votes in support of resolutions related to the Palestinian cause decreased, especially among members of the United Nations General Assembly and members of the Council human rights.

In this axis of the study, the researcher shows the ratio of voting on the resolutions issued by the Human Rights Council, the UN Security Council and the General Assembly of the United Nations, and shows the ratio of voting on them and the extent to which the ratio of voting in favor of the Palestinian cause varies, increase and decrease.

First: Determining the ratio of voting in favor of the Palestinian cause in the institutions of the United Nations.

The maximum number of votes supporting the resolutions of the United Nations General Assembly in 2006 reached 170, while in 2020, the maximum number of votes did not exceed 169, knowing that this ratio of votes was only available in one resolution, while the majority of votes on the rest of the resolutions did not exceed 155 votes.

Looking at the number of votes supporting the steadfastness of the Palestinian people in 2018 and 2017, we find that the ratio of votes is much lower compared to the number of votes in support in 2006, where the ratio of votes in support of resolutions did not reach 160, and given the number of resolutions issued and voted on during that period, we find that a group of these resolutions did not exceed 90 votes in favor, meaning that there are approximately 80 votes belonging to 80 member states of the United Nations General Assembly that did not support draft resolutions that guarantee the rights of the Palestinian people.

As for 2013 to 2016, we find that the voter turnout on United Nations resolutions related to the Palestinian cause was more than 170, while in 2020 and 2019, the maximum vote ratio did not exceed 169 votes, except in some resolutions, the number of votes was only 170 and did not exceed this number, while the maximum number of votes of members in the Human Rights Council at the United Nations between 2006 and 2021 reached 46 votes, with resolutions supporting the rights of the Palestinian people.

However, by looking at the number of these votes and the ratio of votes, we find that it has witnessed a sharp decline in recent years, as resolutions were issued by the Council in 2021, and the number of votes for states supporting the resolutions was only 24 votes, 22 votes less than before[6]. The researcher believes that this sharp decline in the number of votes supporting the rights of the Palestinian people is a dangerous matter, and there is also a fear of condemning the resistance of the Palestinian people, in light of the attempts to confuse legitimate resistance with terrorism.

As for the UN Security Council, despite the clear belief of most of its members in the legitimate Palestinian rights, the American veto continued to confiscate all resolutions supporting the Palestinian cause, thus blocking the way for the international community to fulfill its obligations.

The State of Palestine is unable to protect its citizens from the violations and crimes of the occupation, and hence the responsibility lies with the international community to provide protection to the Palestinian people who are under Israeli occupation.

Perhaps the Palestinian cause, as the fairest cause in the universe, requires mobilizing and unifying the efforts of all Palestinian and societal forces and the free world to form a front against projects that undermine Palestinian rights and work to test the uniting for peace to bypass the selectivity and politicization of the work of the Security Council, and to ensure the replacement of the logic of interests and brute force with the logic of international human rights law and the rules of international humanitarian law and public international law as a basis for action at the international level

Second: The reasons for the decline in the ratio of votes in favor of the Palestinian cause before the United Nation Institutions:

In an attempt to analyze and explain the reasons for the decline in the vote in favor of the Palestinian cause at the United Nations and the decline in the number of abstained states in most cases, a number of reasons appear to us, the most important of which are:

  • Singularity in managing public affairs, the state of political division, the weakness of the authority and the PLO, the absence of a clear Palestinian political position represented by the Ministry of Foreign Affairs, the authority’s representatives to various countries and ambassadors to the United Nations, and the failure to develop a strategy to work to win the votes of the member states.
  • Neglecting the Palestinian Authority and not relying on the opinions of international legal scholars and senior politicians in setting plans.
  • A group of Arab countries rushed to normalization.
  • The rise of the right and populism in Europe and the United States.
  • The decline of Palestine’s relationship with African countries, and the increase in Israeli attraction to these countries.
  • The Palestinian cause is no longer a central issue that receives unanimity from African and Latin American countries as it was.
  • The blatant American support and bias for the occupation state.
  • The verbal support of the European countries for Palestinian rights.
  • The exploitation of the inexperience of the Palestinian Authority and the weakness of the Palestinian diplomatic representation.
  • The Palestinian feeling and the feeling of some countries about the uselessness of international mechanisms in general and international protection in particular.
  • The Palestinian National Authority continues to link all diplomatic tracks with the negotiation with the occupier.

 

Conclusion:

Although the occupation state has committed, throughout its history, war crimes and crimes against humanity, its leaders and soldiers have always been and still go unpunished, and hundreds of relevant international resolutions have not been implemented, but the conflict is still going on in every international and regional body with the Israeli occupation, which is trying forbid countries from supporting Palestinian rights.

Despite the outstanding activity of Israeli diplomacy and the breakthroughs in Africa, the continent still supports the Palestinian cause by voting on resolutions related to the Palestinian cause, and the abstention of several African countries from voting in favor of the Palestinians, for example, in the decision to recognize Jerusalem as the capital of Israel. On the other hand, the major bloc that voted in favor of Palestine can’t be ignored.[7]

In addition to Palestine’s heading the Group of 77 + China at the United Nations, which had a positive impact in strengthening Palestine’s position among the countries that make up a large bloc in the United Nations, but this development did not benefit Palestine in a way that enables it to express and protect the interests of the group’s countries.

The state of the Palestinian division allowed for more regional interference in the Palestinian issue, which in turn affected the collective performance of the Palestinians, and their regional and international relations.

Also, the decline of left-wing governments and parties in Latin America and the rise of right-wing governments and their declaration of support for Israel also played a role in the decline in the level of voting, although the Palestinian cause had no role in these political transformations.

Perhaps the foregoing indicates the decline and weakness of the national movement and the decline in the relations of the Palestinian parties with Arab and African parties in Europe, Latin America, China and other countries, which has led and will lead to the weakening of the Palestinian movements and the absence of integration between official and popular work.

The speech and practices of the authority have been characterized by duplication and contradiction between adhering to Oslo and the option of negotiations with the leaders of the occupation and coordination with them, and the use of international mechanisms, which created a clear contradiction between the strategy of agreements and negotiations and recognition of the legitimacy of the occupation, and between the strategy of internationalizing the conflict and extracting more decisions.

The lack of good interaction with regional and international variables and the absence of reconciliation contributed to negatively affecting the status of the Palestinian cause and in turn affected the ratio of voting in favor of the Palestinian cause.

First: Results:

  1. The decline in the ratio of voting in the United Nations in favor of the Palestinian cause, especially in recent years, is a dangerous indicator that should be remedied.
  2. That the United States of America sided in most cases against the rights of the Palestinian people.
  3. The efforts of the Israeli occupation state, the United States of America and some of the countries that support it to change some concepts in international law, which caused a decline in the voter turnout.
  4. The Palestinian diplomacy did not work to form a wall against the Israeli incursions in Africa, Europe or Latin America, the role of official diplomacy was absent, and digital and popular diplomacy declined.
  5. The principle of the internationalization of the conflict is still shrouded in ambiguity, in light of the lack of sufficient knowledge of its international and regional legal and human rights framework.
  6. The Palestinian leadership dealt with the United Nations with a kind of seasonality.
  7. The authority or organization has not on any occasion requested to provide support and work hard to activate protection, boycott and accountability pathways at the national, regional and international levels.
  8. Delaying and slowing down the process of holding the occupation leaders accountable.
  9. The continuation of the repercussions of exclusivity in managing public affairs and the continuation of the internal Palestinian division.

Second: Recommendations:

  1. Building a national strategy based on the internationalization of the conflict.
  2. The need for the Palestinian Authority to work to win over the member states of the United Nations in its favor.
  3. The necessity for the Ministry of Foreign Affairs to intensify and invest its diplomatic efforts with African and Asian countries to win the vote at the United Nations and to strengthen the Palestinian effort and its integration with the Arab effort in the United Nations General Assembly.
  4. The necessity of developing the political skills of representatives of the Palestinian Authority around the world.
  5. Activate all international mechanisms to provide protection for Palestinian civilians, and ensure Israel’s accountability for its crimes.
  6. Calling on the Security Council to assume all its responsibilities in addressing the Israeli war crimes, and the heavy damage they caused to the civilian population.
  7. Calling upon the states of the High Contracting Parties to the Fourth Geneva Convention, to work on obligating the Israeli occupation to respect and implement its provisions within the occupied Palestinian territories.
  8. Public and practical confrontation based on knowledge and agreement of the American-Israeli plan.
  9. The need for the Palestinian leadership to officially dismantle the provisions and restrictions of the Oslo Agreement.
  10. Building strategic directions in which roles are integrated to ensure a distinguished level of work with all international actors and free people around the world and mobilize all national, international, institutional and popular energies and expertise in order to move independently at the level of the United Nations.
  11. The Palestinian leadership must continue to join international bodies and agreements in accordance with a national plan and a comprehensive national strategy based on the use of all means and diplomatic and political movements and tools aimed at isolating, boycotting and holding the Israeli occupation accountable.

References:

  • Ashraf Seyam, Uniting for Peace resolution. Is it a Possible Way to Protect Palestinians, Birzeit University, 2011.
  • Ahmed Abu Al-Wafa, The Human Rights Protection System in the United Nations and Specialized International Agencies, The Egyptian Journal of International Law, p. 54, 1998.
  • Saleh Zaid Qasilah, International Criminal Protection Guarantees for Human Rights, Second Edition, Dar Al-Nahda Al-Arabiya, Cairo, 2009.
  • Nasser Al-Rayes, The Palestinian Dtainees and the Palestinian National Strategy to Be Implemented for their Protection, Third Annual Conference entitled Strategies of Resistance, 2014.
  • United Nations website. https://www.un.org/en/
  • Muhammad Al-Saeed Al-Daqqaq, United Nations and Regional Organizations, Dar Al-Maaref, Alexandria, undated.
  • Khairy Ahmed Al-Kabbash, Criminal Protection of Human Rights, A Comparative Study in the Light of the Provisions of Islamic Sharia, Constitutional Principles, and International Conventions, First Edition, Mansh`at Al-Maaref, Alexandria, 2002.
  • Efraim Sneh, Israel after 2000, translated by Al-Baqouri, First Edition, Merritt House for Publishing and Information, Cairo, 2002.
  • Resolution No. 63/93, General Assembly of the United Nations, published on 12/18/2008. https://bit.ly/31rbbGO
  • Providing assistance to the Palestinian people, United Nations General Assembly. https://bit.ly/2F5aVDP
  • Resolution No. 57/52, Providing assistance to Palestinian refugees, United Nations General Assembly. https://bit.ly/2F5aVDP
  • Resolution No. 70/83, Providing Assistance to Palestinian Refugees, United Nations General Assembly, Publication Date 12/15/2015, https://bit.ly/2KJV5Cw
  • Office for the Coordination of Humanitarian Affairs “OCHA”. https://bit.ly/2KdfmAC
  • Palestine Newspaper, Did Supporters of the Palestinian Cause decrease at the United Nations? December 4, 2018, https://cutt.us/OD1qO
  • List of countries that voted “in favor” and “against” the Jerusalem decision, Sky News Arabia, 12/21/2017. bit.ly/2NrzWQq
  • Arab Foreign Ministers to Confront Israeli Plots in Africa, Al-Hayat Al-London, 6/3/2019. bit.ly/2RXGdC9
  • Will the pro-Palestine decrease at the United Nations, Palestine Newspaper: https://felesteen.news/p/38455
  • Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia, https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki

 

[1] Palestine Newspaper, Have supporters of the Palestinian cause retreat at the United Nations?, December 4, 2018, https://cutt.us/OD1qO

[2] Saleh Zaid Qasila, International Criminal Protection Guarantees for Human Rights, 2nd Edition, Dar Al-Nahda Al-Arabiya, Cairo, 2009.

[3] Nasser Al Rayes, The Palestinian Prisoners and the Palestinian National Strategy to Be Implemented for their Protection, Third Annual Conference entitled Strategies of Resistance, 2014.

[4] Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia, Korean War.

[5] Ashraf Seyam, The Union for Peace Decision, Is it a Possible Way to Protect Palestinians, Birzeit University, 2011.

[6] List of countries that voted “in favor” and “against” the Jerusalem decision, Sky News Arabia, 12/21/2017. bit.ly/2NrzWQq

[7] Arab Foreign Ministers to Confront Israeli Plots in Africa, Al-Hayat Al-London, 6/3/2019. bit.ly/2RXGdC9

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172 civil and human rights organizations urge the international community

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172 civil and human rights organizations urge the international community

Condemning the racist Israeli occupation crimes against Palestinian children and demanding their release

The Israelian crimes against Palestinian children are condemned.The Israeli occupation authorities continue their violations against Palestinian children represented in arresting and abusing them during the arrest process without respecting the child’s  protection treaties and the  Convention on the Rights of the Child . These crimes are carried out under displacement, murder and intimidation.       the highest percentage was after April/October (119), and at the end of October there are 160 children distributed in Megiddo Ofer Damon prison of them About (4) children in administrative detention and (12) children under (12) years old are also detained . according to the testimonies provided by the prisoners and the reports issued by the prisoners’ institutions, they are subjected to the cruelty to which adult prisoners are subjected to torture, unfair trials and inhumane treatment that violates their basic rights and threatens their future is lost .        This is against the terms of the Child Agreement،      especially Article 16, which states:

No arbitrary or unlawful interference with a child’s private life, family, home, or correspondence, or any lawful prejudice to his honor or reputation.

Which also states:

“The child has the right to be protected by law from this exposure and prejudice.” The occupation does not take into account the young age of children when they are brought to court, and a special court is not formed for them, and the age of the child is set for less than (16) years based on Military Order No. (132). This is a clear violation of Article No. (1) of the Child Convention, which defines a child as “every human being under the age of eighteen.”

The Israeli occupation authorities deprive the  child prisoners of the most basic rights granted to them by international conventions that they are entitled to  regardless of their religion, nationality. These include the right not to be subjected to arbitrary arrest .it includes:                     – -the right to know the reason for the arrest,         – the right to obtain a lawyer.                        -the family’s right to know the reason for the arrest, and the location of the arrest.         -the right to appear before a judge.          – -the right to object and challenge the accusation.                 – -the right to communicate with the outside world.          -the right to humane treatment that preserves the dignity of the detained child. Child prisoners in Israeli prisons suffer from harsh and inhumane conditions of detention that lack international standards for children’s rights. The prisoners suffer from lack of food and poor quality, lack of hygiene, and the spread of insects         Child prisoners are deprived of health care and appropriate medical treatment, and painkillers are usually the treatment for various types of diseases.  According to the testimonies of child prisoners, the prison administration refuses to transfer patients from them to prison clinics, and if they transfer them, they are subjected to beatings, insults, and harassment, even from doctors and nurses. Likewise, there is no permanent doctor available in the prison clinic.  The occupation is still procrastinating and sometimes refusing to perform surgeries on children who need immediate operations, and this is contrary to international laws that explicitly stipulate the need for medical care for prisoners. Articles (91-92) of the Fourth Geneva Convention stated: “Every prisoner must have a clinic”. An event supervised by a qualified doctor, and that the detainees receive the medical care they need, as well as the installation of any medical devices necessary to maintain their health in good condition, free of charge.  Free medical examinations must be conducted for the detainees at least once a month, and their purpose is to monitor the health and psychological condition, general nutrition, and hygiene, as well as the detection of infectious diseases.  Israeli prisons do not comply with this.

 And if we examine the sentences issued unjustly and aggressively, we find that they are high, as one child was sentenced to life imprisonment, three children were sentenced to 15 years in prison, and four other children were sentenced between 5 and 9 years, and often the verdict is accompanied by financial fines (1000-6000 shekels).

 The Israeli occupation state is the only country in the world that tries children before military courts.

 Based on the foregoing, we, the undersigned organizations, demand:

 First: The international community to put pressure on the Israeli occupation state and oblige it to implement international agreements on prisoners and detainees, especially child prisoners, and to work for their release.

 Second: All international human rights organizations, especially those working in the field of children, such as UNICEF & Dcl, to launch an international campaign to shed light on the suffering of child prisoners in Israeli prisons, and to work for their release.

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A humanitarian appeal

 Briefing note on violence against Palestinian female prisoners inside the Israeli occupation prisons

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Number: / 2022

Date: November 26, 2022

Original language: Arabic

 Briefing note on violence against Palestinian female prisoners inside the Israeli occupation prisons

The International Commission for Supporting the Rights of the Palestinian People (Hashd) presents you with its best regards and highly appreciates your positive role in ensuring that human beings enjoy a decent life around the world, as a true harmony with the charters and provisions of human rights. In the context of our follow-up to the conditions of women in the occupied Palestinian territories, and on the occasion of the International Day for the Elimination of Violence against Women, we inform you of the dangerous decline, represented by the high rates of violence against Palestinian female prisoners inside the Israeli occupation prisons, as this memory comes today in light of the continued violence practiced against them has escalated, especially as they face harsh conditions as a result of the continuation of the escalating Israeli violations, which flout all the rules and principles agreed upon by the international community to provide special protection for women commensurate with their situation, during armed conflicts and occupation.

According to the Commission of Detainees and Ex-Prisoners – a national body concerned with the rights of Palestinian prisoners and ex-prisoners-, the number of female prisoners in Israeli occupation prisons has reached (30), including 11 mothers and two female prisoners under administrative detention. the Israeli occupation forces are still practicing violence against them, through:

Imposing high sentences on them, as there are (17) female prisoners who received high sentences against them.

The occupation authorities deliberately approach medical negligence against them, as 60 cases of wounded female prisoners were recorded, the most serious of which is the case of the prisoner “Israa Ja’abis” from occupied Jerusalem, who has been sentenced to 11 years. deformities, and an urgent need for several operations surgery, to help her, even in a simple way, to overcome the severity of the pain.

being tortured; During the last two months, the prisoner “Dunia Jaradat”, a resident of Jenin, was subjected to a violent interrogation in the “Petah Tikva” investigation center for 14 days, before she was transferred to Damon Prison. Where they were put on a small chair and were interrogated by more than one person interrogator over long hours, including beatings, verbal abuse, and continuous screaming, while the prisoner “Ataf Jaradat” (50 years old) from Jenin, was arrested after the arrest of her three sons (Ghaith, Omar and Muntasir Jaradat), and she was subjected to harsh interrogation in Al-Jalama detention center. This led to the deterioration of her health condition, as she developed high blood pressure and insufficiency she has a regular heart rate and receives 8 types of medication. She also had symptoms of a stroke twice, and she was taken to the hospital several times.

Depriving female prisoners of many rights related to communication with the family and visiting a lawyer, especially mothers, are also denied contact with their children for long periods, and they are not allowed to visit or make phone calls.

The practice of arbitrary arrests of women in the current year and last year, witnessed the largest rate of arrests among women from Jerusalem governorate, at a rate of 45%.

We look forward to your humanity, and your role concerning the realization of women’s rights,  and their rights to freedom, by taking practical measures that would put pressure on the Israeli occupation authorities, to urge them to respect the system of human rights law and international humanitarian law, in the course of dealing with the rights of Palestinian women, including that protecting female prisoners inside Israeli prisons and reducing the rates of violence against them, leading to their release in light of the escalation of arbitrary and illegal arrest campaigns. We hope that you, in your capacity and/or on behalf of your organization, will move quickly now, as tomorrow may be too late.

Accept the utmost respect and appreciation

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The International Commission (Hashd): calls on the international community to translate its solidarity with the Palestinian people into steps in the process of empowering the Palestinian people with their legitimate rights

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Reference number: /2022

Date: November 29, 2022

Press release

On the International Day of Solidarity with the Palestinian People

The International Commission (Hashd): calls on the international community to translate its solidarity with the Palestinian people into steps in the process of empowering the Palestinian people with their legitimate rights

The International Commission for the Support of the Rights of the Palestinian People (Hashd) extends its greetings to our Palestinian people, the free people of the world, and the advocates of humanity and rights, on the occasion of the International Day of Solidarity with the Palestinian People, which falls on Tuesday, November 29, 2022, when our people, the world and the United Nations salute this day from all general, as a day international solidarity with the Palestinian people, following the resolution issued by the General Assembly of the United Nations in the year 1977, considering the anniversary of Partition Resolution No. (181) issued by it on 11/29/1947 as a day to draw the world’s attention to the cause of the Palestinian people and their suffering as a result of the continued occupation, and to affirm their inalienable rights. disposable according to decisions from successive Internationals on Independence, Sovereignty, and Refugee Return.

The International Day of Solidarity with the Palestinian People is a renewed occasion to recall the suffering of the Palestinians in terms of injustice, arbitrariness, and persecution resulting from the failure of the international community, foremost of which is the United Nations to assume their responsibility towards the Palestinian people represented by their affirmation of the justice of the Palestinian cause and the right of the Palestinian people self-determination, the establishment of an independent and sovereign State of Palestine, the right of return of refugees to their homes and lands from which they were expelled on 1948 AD, and their compensation, following Resolution 194 of the United Nations General Assembly.

Solidarity with the oppressed Palestinian people is solidarity with the rights, values, principles, and texts of international laws, covenants, and solidarity with justice under which the Palestinian people aspire to live, after obtaining their rights approved by the resolutions of the United Nations General Assembly, recognized by the countries of the world except for the Israeli military occupation forces and those who supported them. On the oppression of the Palestinian people to provide them with the means of strength and protection to maintain their occupation of our land.

The prolonged suffering of the Palestinian people continues as a result of the continuation of the long-term military and military occupation of the Palestinian lands. Millions of Palestinians have been forcibly displaced from their homes, and the Israeli occupation forces are still violating the civil, political, economic, and social rights of the Palestinian people in all parts of their existence. continue to neglect the rights of the Palestinian people, continues to impose an illegal blockade on Gaza Strip, persist in the policy of colonial settlement and Judaizing the city of Jerusalem, and killing  Palestinian civilians, which, since the beginning of the year, has resulted in the death of 202 Palestinians; It also continues the policy of captivity and arbitrary detention, especially against children and women , the israelian forces racist decisions are against all legislation and against all international norms decisions of international legitimacy, and signed agreements.

This anniversary of the International Day of Solidarity with the Palestinian People comes in light of the rise of the Israeli racist fascist and denial of all the rights of the Palestinian people, as well as the effects of the continued double standards and selective enforcement of international law by the international community that allowed the occupation leaders to escape accountability and punishment.

The International Commission for the Support of the Rights of the Palestinian People (Hashd), considering that the International Day of Solidarity with the Palestinian People constitutes a renewed opportunity to stand on the suffering of the Palestinians and draw the world’s attention to the continuing and exacerbating tragedy as a result of their continued deprivation of their basic rights, and it is an occasion to strengthen efforts to restore Palestinian rightsForemost among them is the right to self-determination and the right to independence and national sovereignty, and in the forefront is the right of return of the refugees to their homes and lands from which they were expelled in 1948 AD, and considering that the successive Israeli measures against human rights activists and those in solidarity with the rights of the Palestinian people are tantamount to a denial of international law and its established principles; announces that it has implemented and is still carrying out a wide campaign to remind the peoples of the world of the suffering of our Palestinian people; They record and claim the following:

The International Commission (Hashd): urges all those interested in justice and humanity ,defenders of human rights ,freedom in all parts of the world, and invites them to organize various solidarity activities to ensure that this day is transformed into a global day of action and solidarity action in all its forms, to demand that the governments of the free world compel Israel to end its oppression of the Palestinian peole.

The International Commission (Hashd): affirms that the international community is required more than ever before to assume its legal ,moral responsibilities individually ,collectively ,to take practical measures and measures that lead to respect and guarantee respect for the principles provisions of law, judiciary, custom, and international action to end the occupation.

The realization of legitimate and inalienable rights to act for the Palestinian people, to ensure that the international community moves from calling for the justice of the Palestinian cause and expressing solidarity, to put an end to occupation and its practices, by adopting a binding international decision that ends the occupation and provides international protection for the Palestinian people.

The International Commission (Hashd): affirms that the international community and the United Nations bear the historical responsibility towards the Palestinian issue that is still unresolved and calls on them to work hard to unite efforts by taking the initiative to end the occupation ,the suffering,the consequences of that mistake must be corrected and rights restored to their owners.

The International Commission (Hashd): urges the need for concerted efforts by friendly countries and international institutions to implement their decisions related to the rights of the Palestinian people, to confront the American bias towards Israeli occupation state, and to stop the permanent politicization of the rights of our Palestinian people.

The International Commission (Hashd): calls on the Arab and Islamic countries to stop normalization with the Israeli entity, including respect for the decisions of the League of Arab States.

The international body (mobilization) calls for adopting a national strategy based on restoring unity and holding comprehensive elections, internationalizing the conflict with the occupying state, in a way that can strengthen the steadfastness of citizens, and employing all the tools of international law to hold accountable and boycott the Israeli occupying state.

The International Commission for Supporting the Rights of the Palestinian People (Hashd)

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